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Law of the People's Republic of China on Product Quality(Order of the President No. 71)

中华人民共和国产品质量法

Date:2010-06-18
Law of the People's Republic of China on Product Quality
 
Order No. 71 of the President of the People’ s Republic of China  

  中华人民共和国产品质量法

 

Adopted at the 30th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s Congress and promulgated by the Order No. 71 of the President of the People’ s Republic of China on February 22, 1993, amended in accordance with the Decision of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People’s Congress on Revision of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Product Quality adopted at the 16th Meeting on July 8, 2000.

Contents

Chapter I General Provisions

Chapter II Supervision over Product Quality

Chapter III Liability and Obligation of Producers and Sellers in Respect of Product Quality

Section 1 Liability and Obligation of Producers in Respect of Product Quality

Section 2 Liability and Obligation of Sellers in Respect of Product Quality

Chapter IV Compensation for Damage

Chapter V Penalty Provisions

Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

Chapter I General Provisions

Article 1 This Law is enacted to strengthen the supervision and control over product quality, to improve product quality, to define the liability relating thereto, to protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers and to safeguard the social and economic order.

Article 2 Anyone who manufactures or sells any product within the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall abide by this Law.

For the purposes of this Law, “product” means one which is processed or manufactured for sale.

This Law shall not apply to construction projects. However, it shall be applicable to those materials, components, fittings and equipment used for construction which fall within the scope of the definition mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

Article 3 Producers and sellers shall establish and improve their internal system for product quality control, and strictly apply the quality standards for jobs, the quality responsibility system and the related check measures.

Article 4 Producers and sellers shall be liable for product quality in accordance with this Law.

Article 5 It is prohibited to forge or fraudulently use authentication marks or other product quality marks; it is prohibited to forge the origin of a product, or to forge or fraudulently use the name and address of another producer; and it is prohibited to mix impurities or imitations into a product that is manufactured or for sale, or pass a fake product off as a genuine one, or pass a defective product off as a quality one.

Article 6 The State encourages the popularization of scientific methods for quality control and the adoption of advanced science and technology, and encourages enterprises to make their product quality reach and surpass their respective sectoral standards, national standards and international standards.

Units and individuals that have made outstanding achievements in exercising advanced control over product quality and in raising their product quality to advanced international standards shall be awarded.

Article 7 People’s governments at various levels shall incorporate the improvement of product quality into their plans for national economic and social development, improve their overall planning, organization and leadership in respect of product quality, provide guidance to producers and sellers and urge them to tighten control over product quality and improve product quality, ensure that the government departments concerned will, in accordance with law, take measures to stop any violations of this Law committed in the process of manufacture and sale of products, and guarantee that this Law is implemented.

Article 8 The department for supervision over product quality under the State Council shall be responsible for supervision over product quality throughout the country. The relevant departments under the State Council shall be responsible for supervision over product quality within the scope of their respective functions and responsibilities.

Local departments for supervision over product quality at or above the county level shall be in charge of supervision over product quality within their respective administrative regions. The relevant departments in the local people’s governments at or above the county level shall be responsible for supervision over product quality within the scope of their respective functions and responsibilities.

Where laws provide otherwise with respect to departments for supervision over product quality, the provisions of such laws shall apply.

Article 9 No functionaries of the local people’s governments at various levels or of other State organs may abuse their power, neglect their duty, engage in malpractices for personal gain, shield or connive at violations of this Law committed in the process of manufacture or sale within their own regions, or obstruct or interfere in the investigation and handling of such violations.

Where a local people’s government at any level or a State organ shields or connives at violations of this Law committed in the process of manufacture or sale, the person who is chiefly responsible shall be investigated for legal responsibility in accordance with law.

Article 10 All units and individuals shall have the right to inform the departments for supervision over product quality or other relevant departments against any violations of this Law.

The Departments for supervision over product quality and other relevant departments shall keep secrets for the informers, and award the them in accordance with the relevant regulations of the people’s governments of provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities directly under the Central Government.

Article 11 No units or individuals may exclude up-to-standard products manufactured by enterprises or sectors from entering into their regions or sectors.

Chapter II Supervision over Product Quality

Article 12 The quality of a product shall undergo inspection until it proves to be up to the standards. No sub-standard product may be passed off as an up-to-standard one.

Article 13 Industrial products constituting potential threats to human health, personal safety and safety of property shall be in conformity with the national standards and sectoral standards for ensuring human health, personal safety and safety of property; with regard to products for which there are no national or sectoral standards to measure up to, products shall meet the requirements for ensuring human, personal safety and safety of property.

Manufacturing and selling of industrial products that do not conform to the standards and requirements for ensuring human health, personal safety and safety of property are prohibited. The specific administrative measures shall be prescribed by the State Council.

Article 14 The State applies, in light of the quality control standards used internationally, the practice of authentication with respect to the quality series of enterprises. An enterprise may, on a voluntary basis, apply for authentication with respect to its quality series to an authentication body approved by the department for supervision over product quality under the State Council or by a department authorized by the said department. The enterprise that is authenticated as qualified shall be issued an authentication certificate for its quality series by the authentication body.

The State applies, in light of the internationally advanced product standards and technical requirements, the system for product quality authentication. An enterprise may, on a voluntary basis, apply for authentication with respect to the quality of its products to an authentication body approved by the department for supervision over product quality under the State Council or by a department authorized by the said department. The enterprise whose product quality is authenticated as up-to-standard shall be issued an authentication certificate for its product quality by the authentication body and shall be permitted to use product quality authentication mark on its products or the packages thereof.

Article 15 The State, with respect to product quality, applies a system of supervision and inspection with random checking as the main form. Products constituting potential threats to human health, to personal safety and to safety of property, important industrial products which have a bearing on the national economy and the people’s wellbeing, and products with quality problems as reported by consumers or relevant organizations shall be subjected to random checking. Samples for random checking shall, at any time, be selected from the market or from among the finished products ready for sale in the storehouse of an enterprise. Supervision and random checking shall be planned and arranged by the department for supervision over product quality under the State Council. The local departments for supervision over product quality in the people’s governments at or above the county level may also make arrangements for supervision and random checking within their respective administrative regions. Where laws provide otherwise with respect to supervision over and inspection of product quality, the provisions of such laws shall apply.

Local departments may not repeat random checking already conducted by State departments; departments at lower levels may not repeat random checking already conducted by departments at higher levels.

Products may be inspected where random checking of such products so requires, but the amount of samples selected for inspection may not exceed the reasonable need of the inspection and no fees may be charged from the enterprises concerned. The expenses thus incurred shall be disbursed in accordance with the relevant regulations of the State Council.

Where producers or sellers have objections to the result of inspection, they may, within 15 days from the date the result is received, apply to the department for supervision over product quality that has conducted the random checking or its superior for re-inspection. The department for supervision over product quality that conducts the re-inspection shall make a conclusion afterwards.

Article 16 No producers or sellers may refuse to undergo supervision over and inspection of their product quality conducted in accordance with law.

Article 17 Where the quality of a product is proved to be not up to standard after random checking is conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Law, the department for supervision over product quality that has conducted random checking shall order the producer and/or seller to improve it within a time limit. If the producer and/or seller fails to do so at the expiration of the time limit, the matter shall be announced by the department for supervision over product quality under the people’s government at or above the provincial level; if the product quality fails to pass re-inspection conducted after the announcement, the producer shall be ordered to discontinue production and/or business operation for overhaul within a time limit; if it again fails to pass another re-inspection conducted at the expiration of the time limit, the producer’s and/or seller’s business license shall be revoked.

Where a product is found through random checking to have serious quality problems, punishment shall be meted out in accordance with the relevant provisions in Chapter V of this Law.

Article 18 The departments for supervision over product quality at or above the county level may, on the basis of the obtained evidence for or information against suspected violations of this law, exercise the following functions and powers when investigating and handling such violations:

(1) to conduct on-the-spot inspection of the place where the party is suspected of engaging in production or sale activities in violation of this Law;

(2) to conduct investigation among the legal representative of the party, the person who is chiefly in charge, and other persons concerned for information related to the production or sale activities engaged in by the suspected party in violation of this Law;

(3) to look into and duplicate the contracts, invoices and account books concerning the party and other relevant material; and

(4) to seal up or seize the products which are regarded, on the basis of evidence, as not being in conformity with the national or sectoral standards for ensuring human health, personal safety and safety of property or as having other kinds of serious quality problems, and the raw and supplementary materials, package materials and production tools that are used directly for the manufacture and sale of such products.

Administrative departments for industry and commerce at or above the county level may, within the scope of their functions and duties defined by the State Council, exercise the functions and powers mentioned in the preceding paragraph when investigating and handling suspected violations of this Law.

Article 19 Product quality inspection institutions shall have the necessary testing facilities and competence and shall undertake inspection of product quality only after being appraised and endorsed by the department for supervision over product quality under the people’s government at or above the provincial level or a department authorized by the said department. Where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise with respect to the institutions for inspection of product quality, the provisions of such laws or administrative regulations shall apply.

Article 20 Intermediary bodies for product quality inspection or authentication shall be established in accordance with law, and they may not be subordinate to or have any relationship of interest with any administrative department or other state organs.

Article 21 Institutions for product quality inspection or authentication shall, on the basis of relevant standards, be objective and impartial in issuing the result of inspection or authentication certificate.

Institutions for product quality inspection or authentication shall, in accordance with the relevant regulations of the State, conduct follow-up inspection of the products bearing the authentication mark with approval; where products not conforming to the standards for authentication bear such mark, it shall demand rectification; if the circumstances are serious, the products shall be disqualified from using the mark.

Article 22 Consumers shall have the right to make inquiries to the producers and sellers about the quality of their products. Where a complaint is made to a department for supervision over product quality, or to an administrative department for industry and commerce, or to any other department concerned, the department that receives the complaint shall be responsible for handling the case.

Article 23 Public organizations protecting the rights and interests of consumers may suggest that the department concerned dispose of the product quality problems as reported by consumers, and may support consumers in their efforts to bring a suit to a people’s court with respect to the damage caused by quality problems of products.

Article 24 The department for supervision over product quality under the State Council and the people’s governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall regularly issue Quality Status Bulletin regarding the products which they have conducted random checking.

Article 25 No departments for supervision over product quality, or other State organs, or institutions for product quality inspection may recommend any manufacturer’s products to the public, or participate in business activities in the form of supervision over the manufacture or sale of products.

Chapter III Liability and Obligation of Producers and Sellers in Respect of Product Quality

Section 1 Liability and Obligation of Producers in Respect of Product Quality

Article 26 Producers shall be liable for the quality of the products they produce. The products shall meet the following quality requirements:

(1) constituting no unreasonable threats to personal safety or safety of property, and conforming to the national standards or the sectoral standards for ensuring human health, personal safety and safety of property, where there are such standards;

(2) possessing the properties as required, except for those with directions stating their functional defects; and

(3) conforming to the product standards marked on the products or on the packages thereof, and to the quality conditions indicated by way of product directions, samples, etc.

Article 27 Marks on the products or on the packages thereof shall be authentic and meet the following requirements:

(1) with certificate showing that the product has passed quality inspection;

(2) with name of the product, name and address of the producer, all marked in Chinese;

(3) with the necessary indications in Chinese regarding the specifications and grade of the product, the main ingredients and their quantities contained in the product, where such particulars are required to be indicated according to the characteristics and the instructions for use of the product; with the indications on the package of information necessary for consumers to know in advance, or providing consumers in advance with documents indicating such information;

(4) with production date, safe-use period or date of expiry clearly indicated in easily spotted areas if the product is to be used within a time limit; and

(5) with a warning mark or statement in Chinese for a product which, if improperly used, may cause damage to the product itself, or may endanger personal safety or safety of property.

Food products without package and other non-packed products which are difficult to be marked due to their special nature may dispense with product marks.

Article 28 The packages of dangerous products, such as fragile, inflammable, explosive, poisonous, corrosive, radioactive products, of products that should be kept upright during storage and transportation, and of other products with special requirements shall meet the necessary requirements in respect of their quality and carry warning marks or statements in Chinese indicting directions for storage and transportation, as required by relevant State regulations.

Article 29 No producer may produce any product that has been eliminated by State orders.

Article 30 No producer may forge the origin of a product, or forge or illegally use another producer’s name and address.

Article 31 No producer may forge or illegally use another producer’s authentication marks or other product quality marks.

Article 32 In producing products, no producer may mix impurities or imitations into the products, or substitute a fake product for a genuine one, a defective product for a high-quality one, or pass a substandard product off as an up-to-standard one.

Section 2 Liability and Obligation of Sellers in Respect of Product Quality

Article 33 A seller shall establish and practise a check-for-acceptance system for replenishment of his stock, and examine the quality certificates and other marks.

Article 34 A seller shall adopt measures to keep the products for sale in good quality.

Article 35 No seller may sell products which are eliminated and the sale of which is stopped by State organs, or expired and deteriorated products.

Article 36 The marks of a seller’s products shall conform to the provisions of Article 27 of this Law.

Article 37 No seller may forge the origin of a product, or forge or fraudulently use another producer’s name and address.

Article 38 No seller may forge or fraudulently use another producer’s authentication marks or other product quality marks.

Article 39 In selling products, no seller may mix impurities or imitations into the products, or substitute a fake product for a genuine one, a defective product for a high-quality one, or pass a substandard product off as an up-to-standard one.

Chapter IV Compensation for Damage

Article 40 A seller shall be responsible for repair or change of the product, or for refund of the purchase price if the product he sold is found to be in any of the following conditions and, if losses are caused to the consumer who bought the product, the seller shall compensate for the losses:

(1) The product does not possess the properties as required and there are no prior indications of the same;

(2) The product does not conform to the product standards marked on it or its package; or

(3) The product does not conform to the quality conditions indicated by way of product directions, samples, etc.

After the repair, change, refund or compensation has been made in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, if it is the producer or another seller who supplied the product to the seller (hereinafter referred to as supplier) that should bear the liability, the seller shall have the right to recover his loss from the producer or the supplier.

Where a seller fails to make the repair, change, refund, or compensation in accordance with the provisions in the first paragraph, the department for supervision over product quality or the administrative department for industry and commerce shall order the seller to do it.

Where the sale contract or processing contract concluded between a producer and another, a seller and another or between a producer and a seller provides otherwise, the parties concerned shall act in accordance with the provisions of the contract.

Article 41 If a producer’s defective product causes physical injury to a person or damage to property other than the defective product itself (hereinafter referred to as another person’s property), he shall be liable for compensation.

A producer shall not be liable for compensation if he can prove the existence of any of the following circumstances:

(1) The product has not been put in circulation;

(2) The defect causing the damage does not exist at the time when the product is put in circulation; or

(3) The science and technology at the time the product is put in circulation is at a level incapable of detecting the defect.

Article 42 Where physical injury is caused to a person or damage to another person’s property by a product’s defect resulting from the seller’s fault, the seller shall be liable for compensation.

Where the seller can identify neither the producer of the defective product nor the supplier thereof, he shall be liable for compensation.

Article 43 Where a defective product causes physical injury to a person or damage to another person’s property, the victim may claim compensation from the producer or from the seller of such product. Where the seller has made the compensation when it is the producer that should bear the liability, the seller shall have the right to recover the loss from the producer. Where the producer has made the compensation when it is the seller that should bear the liability, the producer shall have the right to recover the loss from the seller.

Article 44 Where physical injury is caused by defects in a product, the person liable shall compensate the victim for the expenses of medical treatment, expenses of nursing care during treatment, and the decreased earnings due to the loss of his working time; where the victim is disabled, the person liable shall, in addition, pay for the self-care equipment, subsistence allowances, disability compensation to the victim, living expenses necessary for any other person(s) supported by the victim, etc. Where such defects cause death to the victim, the person liable shall also pay for the funeral expenses, compensation for death, and the living expenses necessary for any other person(s) supported by the deceased before his death, etc.

Where the damage to the property of the victim is caused by the defect in a product, the person liable shall restore the damaged property to its original state, or pay compensation at the market price. If the victims suffer other serious losses, the person liable shall compensate for such losses.

Article 45 The limitation period for bringing an action claiming compensation for the damage done by the defect in a product is two years, counting from the date on which the party concerned knows of or should know of the infringement of his rights and interests.

The right to claim compensation for the damage done by the defective product shall be forfeited upon the expiry of a period of ten years from the date on which the defective product causing the damage is delivered to the first consumer, except where the clearly stated period of safe-use has not expired.

Article 46 For the purposes of this Law, “defect” means one that constitutes an unreasonable threat to personal safety or to safety of another person’s property; where there are national or sectoral standards for ensuring human health, personal safety and safety of property to measure up to, ‘defect’ means failure to measure up to such standards.

Article 47 Where a civil dispute over product quality arises, the parties may seek settlement through negotiation or mediation. If the parties are not willing to do so, or if negotiation or mediation fails, they may apply to an arbitration institution for arbitration, as agreed upon between the parties; if the parties fail to reach an agreement for arbitration or the agreement is invalid, they may bring a suit directly before a people’s court.

Article 48 The arbitration institution or the people’s court may entrust a product quality inspection institution, as mentioned in Article 19 of this Law, with the inspection of a product quality.

Chapter V Penalty Provisions

Article 49 Any producer or seller that produces or sells products not up to the relevant national or sectoral standards for ensuring human health, personal safety and safety of property shall be ordered to discontinue production or sale of such products, the products illegally produced or ready for sale shall be confiscated, he shall be fines a sum equal to the amount of but not more than three times the value of the products illegally produced or ready for sale (including those already sold and those not yet sold, the same hereinafter); the illegal gains, if any, shall also be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious, the business license shall be revoked; if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

Article 50 Where a producer or a seller mixes impurities or imitations into a product, or substitutes a fake product off as a genuine one, or a defective product for a quality one, or passes a substandard product off as an up-to-date one, he shall be ordered to discontinue production or sale, the products illegally produced or for sale shall be confiscated, he shall be fined not less than 50 percent of but not more than three times the value of the products illegally manufactured or ready for sale; the unlawful earnings, if any, shall be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious, the business license shall be revoked; if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated in accordance with law.

Article 51 Any producer that produces products which are eliminated by State orders or any seller that sells products which are eliminated and the sale of which is stopped by State orders shall be ordered to discontinue production or sale of such products, the products illegally produced or for sale shall be confiscated, and a fine not more than the value of the products illegally produced or for sale shall be imposed; the illegal gains, if any, shall be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious, the business license shall be revoked.

Article 52 Any seller that sells expired or deteriorated products shall be ordered to discontinue sale, the products for illegal sale shall be confiscated, and fine not more than twice the value of the products for illegal sale shall be imposed; the illegal gains, if any, shall be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious, the business license shall be revoked; if a crime is constituted, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with law.

Article 53 Anyone producer or seller that forges or fraudulently uses another producer’s name and address, or forges or fraudulently uses authentication marks or other product quality marks shall be ordered to rectify, the products illegally produced or for sale shall be confiscated, a fine not more than the value of the products illegally produced or for sale shall be imposed; the illegal gains, if any, shall be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious; the business license shall be revoked.

Article 54 Where the marks of a product do not conform to the provisions of Article 27 of this Law, the producer or seller concerned shall be ordered to make rectification. Where the marks on a packed product do not conform to the provisions of sub-paragraphs (4) and (5) of Article 27 of this Law, if the circumstances are serious, the producer or seller concerned shall be ordered to discontinue production or sale of such products, and a fine not more than 30 percent of the value of the products illegally produced or for sale shall be imposed; the illegal gains, if any, shall be confiscated.

Article 55 A seller who sells products prohibited for sale as specified in the provisions from Article 49 to Article 53 of this Law presents sufficient evidence to show that he is ignorant of the fact that sale of the products is prohibited and gives true information about the source of the products may be given lighter or mitigated punishment.

Article 56 Any producer or seller that refuses to undergo supervision and inspection over product quality conducted in accordance with law shall be given a disciplinary warning and be ordered to rectify; if he refuses to rectify, he shall be ordered to discontinue operation for overhaul; if the circumstances are especially serious, his business license shall be revoked.

Article 57 Any product quality inspection institution or authentication body that forges an inspection result or issues an unauthentic certificate shall be ordered to rectify and be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan, the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 50,000 yuan; the illegal gains, if any, shall be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious, the inspection institution or authentication body shall be disqualified for the job; if the a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated in accordance with law.

Any product quality inspection institution or authentication body that issues an untruthful inspection result or certificate and thus causes losses shall bear liability of compensation for the same amount of losses caused; if major losses are caused, the inspection institution or the authentication body shall be disqualified for the job.

Where a product quality authentication body that, in violation of the provisions of the second paragraph of Article 21 of this Law, fails to demand, as required by law, rectification with respect to a product which is not up to the standards for authentication but on which the authentication mark is used, or disqualify the product from using the mark, if losses are caused to consumers due to the fact that the product is not up to standard, the said body shall bear joint and several liability with the producer and the seller; if the circumstances are serious, the authentication body shall be disqualified for the job.

Article 58 Where a public organization or an intermediary agency undertakes to guarantee the quality of a product, if the product is not up to the quality standard as guaranteed and losses are caused to consumers, it shall bear joint and several liability with the producer and the seller of the product.

Article 59 Where false advertisements regarding product quality are published to cheat or mislead consumers, the advertiser shall be investigated for legal responsibility in accordance with the Advertisement Law of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 60 The raw and supplementary material, packaging material and production tools specially used for the production of products as mentioned in Articles 49 and 51 of this Law or for the production of fake products shall be confiscated.

Article 61 Where a person who knows or should know that the manufacture or sale of a product is prohibited by this Law offers conveniences for the transportation, keeping and storage of such product, or offers technologies for the manufacture of the products, all his earnings therefrom shall be confiscated, and he shall be fined not less than 50 percent of but not more than three times the unlawful earnings; if a crime is constituted, he shall be investigated for criminal responsibility.

Article 62 Any operator in the service industry who uses in services the products prohibited for sale, as mentioned in the provisions from Articles 49 to Article 52 of this Law, shall be ordered to discontinue their use; those who know or should know that sale of the products they use is prohibited by this Law shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of this Law for the punishment of the seller of such products and on the basis of the value of the illegally used products (including those all ready used and those not yet used).

Article 63 Anyone who conceals, moves to other places, sells or destroy goods sealed up or seized by departments for supervision over product quality or administrative departments for industry and commerce shall be fined not less than the amount of but not more than three times the value of the said goods; the illegal gains, if any, shall be confiscated.

Article 64 If the property of a person who violates the provisions of this Law and who therefore shall bear the civil liability of compensation and is required to pay a fine, is insufficient for paying both the compensation and the fine, such person shall first bear the civil liability of compensation.

Article 65 Functionaries of the people’s governments at various levels or of State organs who commit any of the following acts shall be given administrative sanctions an accordance with law; if the act constitutes a crime, criminal responsibility shall be investigated an accordance with law:

(1) shielding or conniving at violations of this Law committed in the process of manufacture or sale of products;

(2) divulging information to the parties who engage in production or sale activities in violation of the provisions of this Law and helping them to evade investigation and handling; or

(3) obstructing or interfering in the investigation and handling of the violations of this Law committed in the process of manufacture and sale of products conducted by departments for supervision over product quality or administrative departments for industry and commerce, and thus causing serious consequences.

Article 66 If a department for supervision over product quality, when conducting random checking, asks for samples in excess of the specifies amount or charges fees from the inspected, it shall be ordered by the department for supervision over product quality at a higher level or the supervisory organ to return the extra samples or the fees; if the circumstances are serious, the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible shall be given administrative sanctions in accordance with law.

Article 67 If a department for supervision over product quality or any other State organ, in violation of the provisions of Article 25 of this Law, recommends to the public a manufacturer’s product, or participates in business activities in the form of supervision over the manufacture or sale of products, it shall be ordered by its superior or the supervisory organ to rectify to offset the negative effect, and its unlawful earnings, if any, shall be confiscated; if the circumstances are serious, the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible shall be given administrative sanctions in accordance with law.

If a product quality inspection institution commits the illegal activities mentioned in the preceding paragraph, it shall be ordered by the department for supervision over product quality to rectify to offset the negative effect, and its unlawful earnings, if any, shall be confiscated and it may also be fined not more than the amount of its unlawful earnings; if the circumstance are serious, it shall be disqualified for quality inspection.

Article 68 Any functionary of the department for supervision over product quality or of the administrative department for industry and commerce who abuses his power, neglects his duty, or engages in malpractices for personal gains, if a crime is constituted, shall be investigated for criminal responsibility in accordance with law; otherwise he shall be given administrative sanctions in accordance with law.

Article 69 Anyone who obstructs, by means of violence or intimidation, functionaries of the departments for supervision over product quality or of the administrative departments for industry and commerce from performing their duties according to law shall be investigated for criminal responsibility in accordance with law; anyone who prevents or obstructs, without resorting to violence or intimidation, the said functionaries from performing their duties shall be punished by the public security organs in accordance with the provisions of the Regulations on Administrative Penalties for Public Security.

Article 70 An administrative sanction involving revocation of business license, as provided for in this Law, shall be decided by the administrative department for industry and commerce, and the administrative sanctions, as provided for in the provisions from Articles 49 to Article 57 and in Articles 60 to 63, shall be decided by the department for supervision over product quality or the administrative department for industry and commerce within the scope of their functions and powers prescribed by the State Council. Where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise as to the authorities exercising the power of administrative sanction, the provisions of such laws and administrative regulations shall apply.

Article 71 Products confiscated in accordance with the provisions of this Law shall be disposed of or handled by other means in accordance with the relevant regulations of the State.

Article 72 The value of the products mentioned in the provisions from Article 49 to Article 54, Articles 62 and 63 shall be calculated on the basis of the marked prices of the products illegally manufactured or for sale; where such prices are not available, it shall be calculated on the basis of the market prices for similar products.

Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

Article 73 Measures for supervision over the quality of military industrial products shall be formulated separately by the State Council and the Central Military Commission.

Where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise as to the liability of compensation for damages caused by nucleus facilities or products, the provisions of such laws or regulations shall apply.

Article 74 This Law shall go into effect as of September 1, 1993.

 

中华人民共和国产品质量法

(1993年2月22日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议通过 根据2000年7月8日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国产品质量法〉的决定》修正)

目录
   第一章 总则
   第二章 产品质量的监督
   第三章 生产者、销售者的产品质量责任和义务
    第一节 生产者的产品质量责任和义务
    第二节 销售者的产品质量责任和义务
   第四章 损害赔偿
   第五章 罚则
   第六章 附则

 

第一章 总则
  第一条 为了加强对产品质量的监督管理,提高产品质量水平,明确产品质量责任,保护消费者的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,制定本法。
  第二条 在中华人民共和国境内从事产品生产、销售活动,必须遵守本法。
  本法所称产品是指经过加工、制作,用于销售的产品。
  建设工程不适用本法规定;但是,建设工程使用的建筑材料、建筑构配件和设备,属于前款规定的产品范围的,适用本法规定。
  第三条 生产者、销售者应当建立健全内部产品质量管理制度,严格实施岗位质量规范、质量责任以及相应的考核办法。
  第四条 生产者、销售者依照本法规定承担产品质量责任。
  第五条 禁止伪造或者冒用认证标志等质量标志;禁止伪造产品的产地,伪造或者冒用他人的厂名、厂址;禁止在生产、销售的产品中掺杂、掺假,以假充真,以次充好。
  第六条 国家鼓励推行科学的质量管理方法,采用先进的科学技术,鼓励企业产品质量达到并且超过行业标准、国家标准和国际标准。
  对产品质量管理先进和产品质量达到国际先进水平、成绩显著的单位和个人,给予奖励。
  第七条 各级人民政府应当把提高产品质量纳入国民经济和社会发展规划,加强对产品质量工作的统筹规划和组织领导,引导、督促生产者、销售者加强产品质量管理,提高产品质量,组织各有关部门依法采取措施,制止产品生产、销售中违反本法规定的行为,保障本法的施行。
  第八条 国务院产品质量监督部门主管全国产品质量监督工作。国务院有关部门在各自的职责范围内负责产品质量监督工作。
  县级以上地方产品质量监督部门主管本行政区域内的产品质量监督工作。县级以上地方人民政府有关部门在各自的职责范围内负责产品质量监督工作。
  法律对产品质量的监督部门另有规定的,依照有关法律的规定执行。
  第九条 各级人民政府工作人员和其他国家机关工作人员不得滥用职权、玩忽职守或者徇私舞弊,包庇、放纵本地区、本系统发生的产品生产、销售中违反本法规定的行为,或者阻挠、干预依法对产品生产、销售中违反本法规定的行为进行查处。
  各级地方人民政府和其他国家机关有包庇、放纵产品生产、销售中违反本法规定的行为的,依法追究其主要负责人的法律责任。
  第十条 任何单位和个人有权对违反本法规定的行为,向产品质量监督部门或者其他有关部门检举。
  产品质量监督部门和有关部门应当为检举人保密,并按照省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的规定给予奖励。
  第十一条 任何单位和个人不得排斥非本地区或者非本系统企业生产的质量合格产品进入本地区、本系统。

第二章 产品质量的监督
  第十二条 产品质量应当检验合格,不得以不合格产品冒充合格产品。
  第十三条 可能危及人体健康和人身、财产安全的工业产品,必须符合保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准;未制定国家标准、行业标准的,必须符合保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的要求。
  禁止生产、销售不符合保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的标准和要求的工业产品。具体管理办法由国务院规定。
  第十四条 国家根据国际通用的质量管理标准,推行企业质量体系认证制度。企业根据自愿原则可以向国务院产品质量监督部门认可的或者国务院产品质量监督部门授权的部门认可的认证机构申请企业质量体系认证。经认证合格的,由认证机构颁发企业质量体系认证证书。
  国家参照国际先进的产品标准和技术要求,推行产品质量认证制度。企业根据自愿原则可以向国务院产品质量监督部门认可的或者国务院产品质量监督部门授权的部门认可的认证机构申请产品质量认证。经认证合格的,由认证机构颁发产品质量认证证书,准许企业在产品或者其包装上使用产品质量认证标志。
  第十五条 国家对产品质量实行以抽查为主要方式的监督检查制度,对可能危及人体健康和人身、财产安全的产品,影响国计民生的重要工业产品以及消费者、有关组织反映有质量问题的产品进行抽查。抽查的样品应当在市场上或者企业成品仓库内的待销产品中随机抽取。监督抽查工作由国务院产品质量监督部门规划和组织。县级以上地方产品质量监督部门在本行政区域内也可以组织监督抽查。法律对产品质量的监督检查另有规定的,依照有关法律的规定执行。
  国家监督抽查的产品,地方不得另行重复抽查;上级监督抽查的产品,下级不得另行重复抽查。
  根据监督抽查的需要,可以对产品进行检验。检验抽取样品的数量不得超过检验的合理需要,并不得向被检查人收取检验费用。监督抽查所需检验费用按照国务院规定列支。
  生产者、销售者对抽查检验的结果有异议的,可以自收到检验结果之日起十五日内向实施监督抽查的产品质量监督部门或者其上级产品质量监督部门申请复检,由受理复检的产品质量监督部门作出复检结论。
  第十六条 对依法进行的产品质量监督检查,生产者、销售者不得拒绝。
  第十七条 依照本法规定进行监督抽查的产品质量不合格的,由实施监督抽查的产品质量监督部门责令其生产者、销售者限期改正。逾期不改正的,由省级以上人民政府产品质量监督部门予以公告;公告后经复查仍不合格的,责令停业,限期整顿;整顿期满后经复查产品质量仍不合格的,吊销营业执照。
  监督抽查的产品有严重质量问题的,依照本法第五章的有关规定处罚。
  第十八条 县级以上产品质量监督部门根据已经取得的违法嫌疑证据或者举报,对涉嫌违反本法规定的行为进行查处时,可以行使下列职权:
  (一)对当事人涉嫌从事违反本法的生产、销售活动的场所实施现场检查;
  (二)向当事人的法定代表人、主要负责人和其他有关人员调查、了解与涉嫌从事违反本法的生产、销售活动有关的情况;
  (三)查阅、复制当事人有关的合同、发票、帐簿以及其他有关资料;
  (四)对有根据认为不符合保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的产品或者有其他严重质量问题的产品,以及直接用于生产、销售该项产品的原辅材料、包装物、生产工具,予以查封或者扣押。
  县级以上工商行政管理部门按照国务院规定的职责范围,对涉嫌违反本法规定的行为进行查处时,可以行使前款规定的职权。
  第十九条 产品质量检验机构必须具备相应的检测条件和能力,经省级以上人民政府产品质量监督部门或者其授权的部门考核合格后,方可承担产品质量检验工作。法律、行政法规对产品质量检验机构另有规定的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定执行。
  第二十条 从事产品质量检验、认证的社会中介机构必须依法设立,不得与行政机关和其他国家机关存在隶属关系或者其他利益关系。
  第二十一条 产品质量检验机构、认证机构必须依法按照有关标准,客观、公正地出具检验结果或者认证证明。
  产品质量认证机构应当依照国家规定对准许使用认证标志的产品进行认证后的跟踪检查;对不符合认证标准而使用认证标志的,要求其改正;情节严重的,取消其使用认证标志的资格。
  第二十二条 消费者有权就产品质量问题,向产品的生产者、销售者查询;向产品质量监督部门、工商行政管理部门及有关部门申诉,接受申诉的部门应当负责处理。
  第二十三条 保护消费者权益的社会组织可以就消费者反映的产品质量问题建议有关部门负责处理,支持消费者对因产品质量造成的损害向人民法院起诉。
  第二十四条 国务院和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的产品质量监督部门应当定期发布其监督抽查的产品的质量状况公告。
  第二十五条 产品质量监督部门或者其他国家机关以及产品质量检验机构不得向社会推荐生产者的产品;不得以对产品进行监制、监销等方式参与产品经营活动。

第三章 生产者、销售者的产品质量责任和义务
  第一节 生产者的产品质量责任和义务
  第二十六条 生产者应当对其生产的产品质量负责。
  产品质量应当符合下列要求:
  (一)不存在危及人身、财产安全的不合理的危险,有保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的,应当符合该标准;
  (二)具备产品应当具备的使用性能,但是,对产品存在使用性能的瑕疵作出说明的除外;
  (三)符合在产品或者其包装上注明采用的产品标准,符合以产品说明、实物样品等方式表明的质量状况。
  第二十七条 产品或者其包装上的标识必须真实,并符合下列要求:
  (一)有产品质量检验合格证明;
  (二)有中文标明的产品名称、生产厂厂名和厂址;
  (三)根据产品的特点和使用要求,需要标明产品规格、等级、所含主要成份的名称和含量的,用中文相应予以标明;需要事先让消费者知晓的,应当在外包装上标明,或者预先向消费者提供有关资料;
  (四)限期使用的产品,应当在显著位置清晰地标明生产日期和安全使用期或者失效日期;
  (五)使用不当,容易造成产品本身损坏或者可能危及人身、财产安全的产品,应当有警示标志或者中文警示说明。
  裸装的食品和其他根据产品的特点难以附加标识的裸装产品,可以不附加产品标识。
  第二十八条 易碎、易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性等危险物品以及储运中不能倒置和其他有特殊要求的产品,其包装质量必须符合相应要求,依照国家有关规定作出警示标志或者中文警示说明,标明储运注意事项。
  第二十九条 生产者不得生产国家明令淘汰的产品。
  第三十条 生产者不得伪造产地,不得伪造或者冒用他人的厂名、厂址。
  第三十一条 生产者不得伪造或者冒用认证标志等质量标志。
  第三十二条 生产者生产产品,不得掺杂、掺假,不得以假充真、以次充好,不得以不合格产品冒充合格产品。
  第二节 销售者的产品质量责任和义务
  第三十三条 销售者应当建立并执行进货检查验收制度,验明产品合格证明和其他标识。
  第三十四条 销售者应当采取措施,保持销售产品的质量。
  第三十五条 销售者不得销售国家明令淘汰并停止销售的产品和失效、变质的产品。
  第三十六条 销售者销售的产品的标识应当符合本法第二十七条的规定。
  第三十七条 销售者不得伪造产地,不得伪造或者冒用他人的厂名、厂址。
  第三十八条 销售者不得伪造或者冒用认证标志等质量标志。
  第三十九条 销售者销售产品,不得掺杂、掺假,不得以假充真、以次充好,不得以不合格产品冒充合格产品。

第四章 损害赔偿
  第四十条 售出的产品有下列情形之一的,销售者应当负责修理、更换、退货;给购买产品的消费者造成损失的,销售者应当赔偿损失:
  (一)不具备产品应当具备的使用性能而事先未作说明的;
  (二)不符合在产品或者其包装上注明采用的产品标准的;
  (三)不符合以产品说明、实物样品等方式表明的质量状况的。
  销售者依照前款规定负责修理、更换、退货、赔偿损失后,属于生产者的责任或者属于向销售者提供产品的其他销售者(以下简称供货者)的责任的,销售者有权向生产者、供货者追偿。
  销售者未按照第一款规定给予修理、更换、退货或者赔偿损失的,由产品质量监督部门或者工商行政管理部门责令改正。
  生产者之间,销售者之间,生产者与销售者之间订立的买卖合同、承揽合同有不同约定的,合同当事人按照合同约定执行。
  第四十一条 因产品存在缺陷造成人身、缺陷产品以外的其他财产(以下简称他人财产)损害的,生产者应当承担赔偿责任。
  生产者能够证明有下列情形之一的,不承担赔偿责任:
  (一)未将产品投入流通的;
  (二)产品投入流通时,引起损害的缺陷尚不存在的;
  (三)将产品投入流通时的科学技术水平尚不能发现缺陷的存在的。
  第四十二条 由于销售者的过错使产品存在缺陷,造成人身、他人财产损害的,销售者应当承担赔偿责任。
  销售者不能指明缺陷产品的生产者也不能指明缺陷产品的供货者的,销售者应当承担赔偿责任。
  第四十三条 因产品存在缺陷造成人身、他人财产损害的,受害人可以向产品的生产者要求赔偿,也可以向产品的销售者要求赔偿。属于产品的生产者的责任,产品的销售者赔偿的,产品的销售者有权向产品的生产者追偿。属于产品的销售者的责任,产品的生产者赔偿的,产品的生产者有权向产品的销售者追偿。
  第四十四条 因产品存在缺陷造成受害人人身伤害的,侵害人应当赔偿医疗费、治疗期间的护理费、因误工减少的收入等费用;造成残疾的,还应当支付残疾者生活自助具费、生活补助费、残疾赔偿金以及由其扶养的人所必需的生活费等费用;造成受害人死亡的,并应当支付丧葬费、死亡赔偿金以及由死者生前扶养的人所必需的生活费等费用。
  因产品存在缺陷造成受害人财产损失的,侵害人应当恢复原状或者折价赔偿。受害人因此遭受其他重大损失的,侵害人应当赔偿损失。
  第四十五条 因产品存在缺陷造成损害要求赔偿的诉讼时效期间为二年,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权益受到损害时起计算。
  因产品存在缺陷造成损害要求赔偿的请求权,在造成损害的缺陷产品交付最初消费者满十年丧失;但是,尚未超过明示的安全使用期的除外。
  第四十六条 本法所称缺陷,是指产品存在危及人身、他人财产安全的不合理的危险;产品有保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的,是指不符合该标准。
  第四十七条 因产品质量发生民事纠纷时,当事人可以通过协商或者调解解决。当事人不愿通过协商、调解解决或者协商、调解不成的,可以根据当事人各方的协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁;当事人各方没有达成仲裁协议或者仲裁协议无效的,可以直接向人民法院起诉。
  第四十八条 仲裁机构或者人民法院可以委托本法第十九条规定的产品质量检验机构,对有关产品质量进行检验。

第五章 罚则
  第四十九条 生产、销售不符合保障人体健康和人身、财产安全的国家标准、行业标准的产品的,责令停止生产、销售,没收违法生产、销售的产品,并处违法生产、销售产品(包括已售出和未售出的产品,下同)货值金额等值以上三倍以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得;情节严重的,吊销营业执照;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第五十条 在产品中掺杂、掺假,以假充真,以次充好,或者以不合格产品冒充合格产品的,责令停止生产、销售,没收违法生产、销售的产品,并处违法生产、销售产品货值金额百分之五十以上三倍以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得;情节严重的,吊销营业执照;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第五十一条 生产国家明令淘汰的产品的,销售国家明令淘汰并停止销售的产品的,责令停止生产、销售,没收违法生产、销售的产品,并处违法生产、销售产品货值金额等值以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得;情节严重的,吊销营业执照。
  第五十二条 销售失效、变质的产品的,责令停止销售,没收违法销售的产品,并处违法销售产品货值金额二倍以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得;情节严重的,吊销营业执照;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第五十三条 伪造产品产地的,伪造或者冒用他人厂名、厂址的,伪造或者冒用认证标志等质量标志的,责令改正,没收违法生产、销售的产品,并处违法生产、销售产品货值金额等值以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得;情节严重的,吊销营业执照。
  第五十四条 产品标识不符合本法第二十七条规定的,责令改正;有包装的产品标识不符合本法第二十七条第(四)项、第(五)项规定,情节严重的,责令停止生产、销售,并处违法生产、销售产品货值金额百分之三十以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得。
  第五十五条 销售者销售本法第四十九条至第五十三条规定禁止销售的产品,有充分证据证明其不知道该产品为禁止销售的产品并如实说明其进货来源的,可以从轻或者减轻处罚。
  第五十六条 拒绝接受依法进行的产品质量监督检查的,给予警告,责令改正;拒不改正的,责令停业整顿;情节特别严重的,吊销营业执照。
  第五十七条 产品质量检验机构、认证机构伪造检验结果或者出具虚假证明的,责令改正,对单位处五万元以上十万元以下的罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上五万元以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得;情节严重的,取消其检验资格、认证资格;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  产品质量检验机构、认证机构出具的检验结果或者证明不实,造成损失的,应当承担相应的赔偿责任;造成重大损失的,撤销其检验资格、认证资格。
  产品质量认证机构违反本法第二十一条第二款的规定,对不符合认证标准而使用认证标志的产品,未依法要求其改正或者取消其使用认证标志资格的,对因产品不符合认证标准给消费者造成的损失,与产品的生产者、销售者承担连带责任;情节严重的,撤销其认证资格。
  第五十八条 社会团体、社会中介机构对产品质量作出承诺、保证,而该产品又不符合其承诺、保证的质量要求,给消费者造成损失的,与产品的生产者、销售者承担连带责任。
  第五十九条 在广告中对产品质量作虚假宣传,欺骗和误导消费者的,依照《中华人民共和国广告法》的规定追究法律责任。
  第六十条 对生产者专门用于生产本法第四十九条、第五十一条所列的产品或者以假充真的产品的原辅材料、包装物、生产工具,应当予以没收。
  第六十一条 知道或者应当知道属于本法规定禁止生产、销售的产品而为其提供运输、保管、仓储等便利条件的,或者为以假充真的产品提供制假生产技术的,没收全部运输、保管、仓储或者提供制假生产技术的收入,并处违法收入百分之五十以上三倍以下的罚款;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第六十二条 服务业的经营者将本法第四十九条至第五十二条规定禁止销售的产品用于经营性服务的,责令停止使用;对知道或者应当知道所使用的产品属于本法规定禁止销售的产品的,按照违法使用的产品(包括已使用和尚未使用的产品)的货值金额,依照本法对销售者的处罚规定处罚。
  第六十三条 隐匿、转移、变卖、损毁被产品质量监督部门或者工商行政管理部门查封、扣押的物品的,处被隐匿、转移、变卖、损毁物品货值金额等值以上三倍以下的罚款;有违法所得的,并处没收违法所得。
  第六十四条 违反本法规定,应当承担民事赔偿责任和缴纳罚款、罚金,其财产不足以同时支付时,先承担民事赔偿责任。
  第六十五条 各级人民政府工作人员和其他国家机关工作人员有下列情形之一的,依法给予行政处分;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
  (一)包庇、放纵产品生产、销售中违反本法规定行为的;
  (二)向从事违反本法规定的生产、销售活动的当事人通风报信,帮助其逃避查处的;
  (三)阻挠、干预产品质量监督部门或者工商行政管理部门依法对产品生产、销售中违反本法规定的行为进行查处,造成严重后果的。
  第六十六条 产品质量监督部门在产品质量监督抽查中超过规定的数量索取样品或者向被检查人收取检验费用的,由上级产品质量监督部门或者监察机关责令退还;情节严重的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予行政处分。
  第六十七条 产品质量监督部门或者其他国家机关违反本法第二十五条的规定,向社会推荐生产者的产品或者以监制、监销等方式参与产品经营活动的,由其上级机关或者监察机关责令改正,消除影响,有违法收入的予以没收;情节严重的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予行政处分。
  产品质量检验机构有前款所列违法行为的,由产品质量监督部门责令改正,消除影响,有违法收入的予以没收,可以并处违法收入一倍以下的罚款;情节严重的,撤销其质量检验资格。
  第六十八条 产品质量监督部门或者工商行政管理部门的工作人员滥用职权、玩忽职守、徇私舞弊,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不构成犯罪的,依法给予行政处分。
  第六十九条 以暴力、威胁方法阻碍产品质量监督部门或者工商行政管理部门的工作人员依法执行职务的,依法追究刑事责任;拒绝、阻碍未使用暴力、威胁方法的,由公安机关依照治安管理处罚条例的规定处罚。
  第七十条 本法规定的吊销营业执照的行政处罚由工商行政管理部门决定,本法第四十九条至第五十七条、第六十条至第六十三条规定的行政处罚由产品质量监督部门或者工商行政管理部门按照国务院规定的职权范围决定。法律、行政法规对行使行政处罚权的机关另有规定的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定执行。
  第七十一条 对依照本法规定没收的产品,依照国家有关规定进行销毁或者采取其他方式处理。
  第七十二条 本法第四十九条至第五十四条、第六十二条、第六十三条所规定的货值金额以违法生产、销售产品的标价计算;没有标价的,按照同类产品的市场价格计算。

第六章 附则
  第七十三条 军工产品质量监督管理办法,由国务院、中央军事委员会另行制定。因核设施、核产品造成损害的赔偿责任,法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。
  第七十四条 本法自1993年9月1日起施行。


Editor:maoting Source:Gov.cn